“Vitriol” refers to sulfuric acid and sulfate salts. The importance of vitriol to alchemy is highlighted in the alchemical motto, Visita Interiora Terrae Rectificando Invenies Occultum Lapidem which is a backronym meaning (‘Visit the interior of the earth and rectifying (i.e. purifying) you will find the hidden/secret stone’), found in L’Azoth des Philosophes by the 15th Century alchemist Basilius Valentinus.
“Mandarin” would seem not to be an Anglicization of a Chinese word, but rather a loan word from Portuguese or Dutch (via Malay and Sanskrit).
“Sicarius,” or “dagger-man,” is a word for “assassin,” although accounts of the Sicarii predate accounts of the hashshashin (from whom the word “assassin” was eventually derived).
All information in this post is due to Wikipedia and therefore exists in a somewhat unstable quantum superposition. As you were.